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  • CUADERNO DE BITÁCORA

    Santa Lucía (actual Río de Janeiro)

    Primera parada en el continente americano.

    “Entramos a este puerto [actual Rio de Janeiro] el día de Santa Lucía, a 13 días del mes de diciembre. Teníamos entonces, a mediodía, el sol en el zenit, y experimentábamos mucho más calor que cuando pasamos la línea.
    La tierra del Brasil, que abunda de toda clase de provisiones, es tan extensa como la Francia, la España y la Italia juntas: pertenece al rey de Portugal.
    Los brasileros no son cristianos, pero tampoco son idólatras, porque no adoran nada: el instinto natural es su única ley. Viven tan largo tiempo, que es frecuente encontrar individuos que alcanzan hasta los ciento veinticinco y aun algunas veces hasta los ciento cuarenta años. Tanto las mujeres como los hombres andan desnudos. Sus habitaciones, que llaman boy, son cabañas alargadas, y duermen sobre redes de algodón, llamadas hamaks, sujetas por los dos extremos a postes gruesos.” Pigafetta

    “We entered into this port the day of Saint Lucy [13th December], before Christmas, on which day we had the sun on the zenith, which is a term of astrology. The said country of Verzin is very abundant in all good things, and is larger than France, Spain, and Italy together. It is one of the countries which the King of Portugal has conquered [acquired]. Its inhabitants are not Christians, and adore nothing, but live according to the usage of nature, rather bestially than otherwise. Some of these people live a hundred, or a hundred and twenty, or a hundred and forty years, and more; they go naked, both men and women. Their dwellings are houses that are rather long, and which they call “boy”; they sleep upon cotton nets, which they call, in their language, “amache.” Pigafetta
    Puerto pesquero.
    “We entered into this port the day of Saint Lucy [13th December], before Christmas, on which day we had the sun on the zenith, which is a term of astrology. The said country of Verzin is very abundant in all good things, and is larger than France, Spain, and Italy together. It is one of the countries which the King of Portugal has conquered [acquired]. Its inhabitants are not Christians, and adore nothing, but live according to the usage of nature, rather bestially than otherwise. Some of these people live a hundred, or a hundred and twenty, or a hundred and forty years, and more; they go naked, both men and women. Their dwellings are houses that are rather long, and which they call “boy”; they sleep upon cotton nets, which they call, in their language, “amache.” Pigafetta

    hacia el oeste paralelos al ecuador.

    Cruzando el oceano.

    “Cuando hubimos pasado la línea equinoccial, acercándonos al polo antártico, perdimos de vista la estrella polar. Dejamos el cabo entre el sur y el sudoeste, e hicimos rumbo a la tierra que se llama de Verzino [es nombre italiano para Brasil] por los 23° 30′ de latitud meridional.
    Esta tierra es una continuación de la en que se encuentra el cabo de San Agustín, por los 8° 30′ de la misma latitud.” Pigafetta

    “After that we had passed the equinoctial line, towards the south, we lost the star of the tramontana, and we navigated between the south and Garbin, which is the collateral wind [or point] between south and west; and we crossed as far as a country named Verzin, which is in twenty-four degrees and a half of the antarctic sky. This country is from the cape St. Augustine, which is in eight degrees in the antarctic sky.” Pigafetta

    “After that we had passed the equinoctial line, towards the south, we lost the star of the tramontana, and we navigated between the south and Garbin, which is the collateral wind [or point] between south and west; and we crossed as far as a country named Verzin, which is in twenty-four degrees and a half of the antarctic sky. This country is from the cape St. Augustine, which is in eight degrees in the antarctic sky.” Pigafetta


    Llegada a Tenerife.

    La isla de Tenerife antesala de la aventura oceánica.

    “El 26 llegamos auna de las islas Canarias, llamada Tenerife, situada en 28 grados de latitud septentrional. Detuvímonos ahí tres días en un sitio adecuado para procurarnos agua y leña: en seguida entramos en un puerto de la misma isla, llamado Monte-Rosso, donde pasamos dos días.” Pigafetta.

    “On the twenty-sixth of the said month we arrived at an island of great Canaria, named Teneriphe, which is in twenty-eight degrees latitude; there we remained three days and a half to take in provisions and other things which were wanted. After that we set sail thence and came to a port named Monterose, where we sojourned two days to supply ourselves with pitch, which is a thing necessary for ships.“ Pigafetta.

    El puerto en nuestros días.

    “On the twenty-sixth of the said month we arrived at an island of great Canaria, named Teneriphe, which is in twenty-eight degrees latitude; there we remained three days and a half to take in provisions and other things which were wanted. After that we set sail thence and came to a port named Monterose, where we sojourned two days to supply ourselves with pitch, which is a thing necessary for ships.“ Pigafetta.


    Partida de Sanlúcar.

    Salida oficial del viaje.

    “Algunos días después, el comandante en jefe y los capitanes de las otras naves se vinieron en las chalupas desde Sevilla hasta San Lúcar, y se acabó de vituallar la escuadra. Todas las mañanas se bajaba a tierra para oír la misa en la iglesia de N.S. de Barrameda; y antes de partir, el jefe determinó que toda la tripulación se confesase, prohibiendo en absoluto que se embarcase mujer alguna en la escuadra.
    Partimos de San Lúcar el 20 de septiembre, dirigiéndonos hacia el sudoeste.” Pigafetta.

    “A few days afterwards the captain-general came along the said river with his boat, and the masters of the other ships with him, and we remained some days in this port to supply the fleet with some necessary things. We went every day to hear mass on shore, at a church named Our Lady of Barrameda, towards St. Lucar. There the captain commanded that all the men of the fleet should confess before going on any further, in which he himself showed the way to the others. Besides he did not choose that anyone should bring any married woman, or others to the ships, for several good considerations. Tuesday, the 20th September of the said year, we set sail from St. Lucar, making the course of the south-west otherwise.“ Pigafetta.

    Salida de la réplica 500 años después.

    “A few days afterwards the captain-general came along the said river with his boat, and the masters of the other ships with him, and we remained some days in this port to supply the fleet with some necessary things. We went every day to hear mass on shore, at a church named Our Lady of Barrameda, towards St. Lucar. There the captain commanded that all the men of the fleet should confess before going on any further, in which he himself showed the way to the others. Besides he did not choose that anyone should bring any married woman, or others to the ships, for several good considerations. Tuesday, the 20th September of the said year, we set sail from St. Lucar, making the course of the south-west otherwise.“ Pigafetta.

    La réplica de la nao Victoria prepara su salida.

    Llegada a Sanlúcar.

    primera parada para cargar y preparar la travesía.

    “Continuando el descenso del Betis, se pasa cerca de Coria y algunas otras aldeas hasta San Lúcar, castillo de propiedad del duque de Medina Sidonia. Ahí es donde está el puerto que da al océano, a diez leguas del cabo de San Vicente, en el grado 37 de latitud norte. De Sevilla a este puerto hay de diecisiete a veinte leguas.” Pigafetta.

    “After having passed the two columns we came to another place named Coria, and passing by many little
    villages lying along the said river, at last we arrived at a castle, which belongs to the Duke of Medina
    Sidonia, named St. Lucar, where there is a port from which to enter the ocean sea. It is entered by the east
    wind and you go out by the west wind. Near there is the cape of St. Vincent, which, according to
    cosmography, is in thirty-seven degrees of latitude, at twenty miles distance from the said port; and from
    the aforesaid town to this port by the river there are thirty-five or forty miles.“ 
    Pigafetta.

    Vista panorámica de Sanlúcar en la actualidad.

    “After having passed the two columns we came to another place named Coria, and passing by many little
    villages lying along the said river, at last we arrived at a castle, which belongs to the Duke of Medina
    Sidonia, named St. Lucar, where there is a port from which to enter the ocean sea. It is entered by the east
    wind and you go out by the west wind. Near there is the cape of St. Vincent, which, according to
    cosmography, is in thirty-seven degrees of latitude, at twenty miles distance from the said port; and from
    the aforesaid town to this port by the river there are thirty-five or forty miles.“ 
    Pigafetta.

    Vecinos de Sanlúcar paseando por la ciudad.

    La partida.

    Zarpamos!!!!

    “Lunes por la mañana, 10 de agosto del año 1519, una vez que la escuadra tuvo a bordo todo lo que era necesario, como igualmente su tripulación, compuesta de 237 hombres, se anunció la partida con una descarga de artillería, y se desplegaron las velas de trinquete.” Pigafetta.

    “Monday, the day of St. Laurence, the 10th of August, in the year above mentioned, the fleet, provided with what was necessary for it, and carrying crews of different nations, to the number of two hundred and thirty-seven men in all the five ships, was ready to set sail from the mole of Seville; and firing all the artillery. “Pigafetta

    Lugar de los muelles desde donde partió la flota de Magallanes en la orilla Del Río Guadalquivir.

    “Monday, the day of St. Laurence, the 10th of August, in the year above mentioned, the fleet, provided with what was necessary for it, and carrying crews of different nations, to the number of two hundred and thirty-seven men in all the five ships, was ready to set sail from the mole of Seville; and firing all the artillery. “Pigafetta

    La Torre del Oro engalanada se dispone a despedir a la expedición.

    Víspera de la partida.

    últimos pensamientos y actividades.

    “A los peligros naturalmente inherentes a esta empresa, se unía aún una desventaja para él, y era que los comandantes de las otras cuatro naves, que debían hallarse bajo su mando, eran sus enemigos, por la sencilla razón de que eran españoles y Magallanes portugués.” Pigafetta.

    “that is to say that the masters and captains of the other ships of his company did not love him: of this I do not know the reason, except by cause of his, the captain-general, being Portuguese, and they were Spaniards or Castilians, who for a long time have been in rivalry and ill will with one another.” Pigafetta

    El mismo lugar donde fondeaban las 5 naos las vispera de la partida de magallanes.

    “that is to say that the masters and captains of the other ships of his company did not love him: of this I do not know the reason, except by cause of his, the captain-general, being Portuguese, and they were Spaniards or Castilians, who for a long time have been in rivalry and ill will with one another.” Pigafetta

    La iglesia de Santa Ana en Triana, en la víspera de la partida de las naves desde el puerto de Sevilla. 500 años antes, Magallanes y aproximadamente 240 marineros fueron a rezar a la Virgen de la Victoria en esta iglesia el dia anterior de la gran aventura.

    La aventura II.

    Magallanes sueña II ....

    “Había resuelto también abrirse un camino que ningún navegante había conocido hasta entonces; pero se guardó bien de dar a conocer este atrevido proyecto temiendo que se procurase disuadirle en vista de los peligros que había de correr, y que le desanimasen las tripulaciones.” Pigafetta

    “Nevertheless he did not entirely declare the voyage which he was going to make, so that his men should not from amazement and fear be unwilling to accompany him on so long a voyage, as he had undertaken in his intention.” Pigafetta

    Los pensamientos vuelan sobre el azul cielo sevillano.

    La aventura.

    Magallanes sueña ....

    “El capitán general Fernando de Magallanes había resuelto emprender un largo viaje por el Océano, donde los vientos soplan con furor y donde las tempestades son muy frecuentes.” Pigafetta

    El Mar Mediterráneo, nuestro mar más conocido sirve como antesala de la gran aventura de explorar los océanos.

    Siguiente parada.

    aumenta la ilusión ...

    “Provisto de cartas de recomendación, me embarqué para Málaga y de Málaga me trasladé por tierra a Sevilla, donde debí esperar tres meses antes de que la escuadra se hallase en estado de zarpar.” Pigafetta.

    “And came by sea as far as Malaga, and thence I went away by land until I arrived at the said city of Seville. There I remained for the space of three months, waiting till the said armade was in order and readiness to perform its voyage.” Pigafetta

    Málaga, siempre a medias. A medio construir. A medio florecer.

    “And came by sea as far as Malaga, and thence I went away by land until I arrived at the said city of Seville. There I remained for the space of three months, waiting till the said armade was in order and readiness to perform its voyage.” Pigafetta


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